Rhythm: combinations of long and short sounds that convey movement.
Duration: the length of a sound.
Pitch: How high or low a sound is.
Tempo: the speed of the music.
Pulse: the underlying steady beat of music. This is what we may tap our foot or clap along with.
Beat: the basic unit of time within music.
Timbre: the particular tone that distinguishes a sound or combination of sounds.
Texture: the layers of sound in a musical work and the relationship between them.
Melody: a sequence of notes and rhythms.
Structure: refers to the way a piece is built and what order sections are in.
Harmony: the sounding of two or more notes at the same time.
Dynamics: the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.